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ESSENTIALS OF CLOSED FUEL CYCLE SYSTEMS

Fast breeder, Thorium MSBR and Fusion Breeder fleets by 2050

Update July 2014

Breeder Reactors must recycle their highly enriched (20%) fuels. US labs and GE developed methods near to commercialisation.
S. Korea has progressed this much closer to the desired practical techniques. The USDoE remains essentially anti-nuclear and the US is trying to stop Korean progress.

All the steps in Pyro Processing and electro-refining of metals are well developed.
Recycling plants should be fully operated by robots and and specialised actuators.
Many plants will be needed in the USA, close to reactor clusters.
They begin by extracting fuels from old spent PWR fuels with low activity. This is an excellent use of old fuel.

Closing the fuel cycles keeps them clean and safe for millennia.
Downside: Much more complex technology than making windmills.
Upside: The least environmental and ecological damage of any energy system.
Key S-PRISM Fuel Cycle study.
S. Korean Pyroprocessing progress. USwants it closed.
Electrorefining of reactor grade Plutonium.
Survey World Pyro processing spent fuel.
Options seen by IAEA for spent fuel reprocessing.
Packaging Cs & Sr waste.
Patent on Separating U & Pu Hexafluorides.
Budget Request has tiny support for civilian Nuclear research.
Pyroprocessing studies.
MOX from Weapons grade Pu. Wastes valuable Breeder resource.